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Workspace Reports

NP-View uses reports to present network information related to the open workspace.  These reports are available to all users and can be accessed from the main menu. All of the reports are continuous scroll and can be searched by table or column. Searches can be combined between the table and columns.

Viewing Note:  The reports are displayed with alternate rows shaded in a light gray.  Also, in some columns (e.g., Risks) we also use a light gray text.  We have noticed that some custom calibrations will turn these colors to white.  If the gradient rows or text colors are not displaying on your screen try calibrating your monitor to the default settings to make them visible.

Access rules

  • This report provides a summary of all device rules loaded into the workspace.
  • A rule with a strikethrough shows that the rule is disabled. It is based on the parsed field “enabled” that can be either “true” or “false”. Columns can be displayed or hidden using the feature in the upper right corner of the report.
  • Comments can be added to a row by double-clicking on the cell in the column “Comment” The history of comment changes can be viewed by clicking the clock icon in the rightmost column. If there is no comment history the clock will be disabled.

  • Action: (RULE_ACTION) Permit or deny.
  • Application: (RULE_APPLICATION) Filtered application name associated with the rule (only for next-gen firewall).
  • Bindings (ACL): (RULE_ACL) Name of the access list under which the rule is defined. This is a normalized zone representation of [src zone]:[dst zone]
  • Description: (RULE_DESCRIPTION) Remarks from configs associated with rules. Typically found in Cisco devices.
  • Details: Links to the config file and connectivity path table for the selected rule.
  • Destination: (RULE_DESTINATION) Object group destination for the rule.
  • Device: (RULE_DEVICE) Device host name as defined in a configuration file.
  • Dst Binding: (RULE_DST_BINDING) Outbound interface to which the rule is bound.
  • Dst Criticality: (RULE_DST_CRIT) Criticality of the object group destination (or the parent zone containing the object group destination) as defined by the user on the topology map.
  • Enabled: (RULE_ENABLED) Rule is enabled (True / False).
  • Hit Count: (RULE_ACL_HITS) Number of times the ACL was accessed (only implemented for Cisco so far and requires importing logs).
  • Line #: Line number(s) in the configuration text file where the rule can be found.
  • Risk: (RULE_RISK_DESC) Compliance or security risk associated with rule based on NP and user defined policies / requirements.
  • Risk Criticality: (RULE_RISK_CRIT) Criticality assigned by the triggered rule.
  • Rule: (RULE_NAME) Name of the rule found in the configuration. If the rule doesn't have a name, the value is RULE_X where X is the rule index.
  • Src Binding: (RULE_SRC_BINDING) Inbound interface to which the rule is bound.
  • Service: (RULE_SERVICE) Object group service associated with the rule.
  • Source: (RULE_SOURCE) Object group source for the rule.
  • Src Criticality: (RULE_SRC_CRIT) Criticality of the object group source (or the parent zone containing the object group source) as defined by the user on the topology map.
  • Type: (RULE_TYPE) Type of rule (regular or VPN).
  • User: (RULE_USER) Filtered user name associated with the rule.
  • + Comment: (RULE_COMMENT_AUTHOR, RULE_COMMENT_CRITICALITY, RULE_COMMENT_DESCRIPTION) Drop down for user entered comments (or justification) and criticality levels (low, medium, high).
  • Comment Count: Label less column that indicates the number of comments available for each asset

The source and destination criticalities are calculated based on the higher of the criticalities assigned to the device, network, and zone (aka. binding) that the device is in.

  • if device A is in network N1 and bound to zone Z1 and A is Low, N1 is Medium, and Z1 is High, then the criticality of A will be High (highest criticality based on zone)
  • if A is Medium, N1 is Low, and Z1 is Low, then the criticality of A will be Medium (highest criticality based on device)
  • if A is Low, N1 is High, and Z1 is Medium, then the criticality of A will be High (highest criticality based on network)

Access rule tagging
Access rules are uniquely tagged (Object ID) within NP-View for linkage to comments and risks.  The tag is created using a hash of the below data fields.  If any of the data in these fields changes, the tag will change and previously linked comments and risks will no longer be associated with this rule.

The hash is calculated based on a combination of the following data fields.  Available data varies based on manufacturer so, some fields may not apply to specific manufacturers.  Most of the below fields are defined above. For the fields unique to the hash, they are documented below.

  • Action
  • Application
  • Binding (ACL)
  • Dst Binding
  • direction is used to set some rules to isolate guests from LAN so that rules in the VLAN section of the firewall be set. Each specific network is going to have a set of rules. Depending on the rules created, each traffic will be labeled in, or out, or both.
  • Enabled
  • scope is for the traffic zones used in their networks. Rules can be created based on the parameters of interzone, intrazone, and universal.
  • Rule
  • Service
  • Src Binding
  • Type

Access rule metadata synchronization (Enterprise Only)
In the Enterprise edition, additional metadata fields can be created for the Access rules report.  The metadata will automatically synchronize across Palo Alto devices and workspaces where the same access rule UUID appears.

Asset Inventory

  • This report provides a summary of all assets loaded into the workspace including: Firewalls, Routers, Switches, Gateways and Hosts.
  • If an IP address is displayed as 0.0.0.0 this device has an IP address assigned by DHCP and while the device was detected, an IP address could not be extracted.
  • Unmapped hosts have enough information for identification but not for mapping purposes on the topology map.
  • For some devices there may be a large number of hosts defined in Asset Inventory but less are showing on the topology map.  These ‘invisible’ hosts are located behind mapped gateways and can be seen in the gateway’s peer list.


  • Alias: List of alternative names identified in configuration(s), separated by ":".
  • Category: User assigned category from the topology map.
  • Created At: Time and date when the device was added to the workspace.
  • Created By: Files used to create the device or host.
  • Criticality: User assigned criticality from the topology map.
  • Description: Description from the configuration file if available.
  • IP address: IP address of the device, gateway, or host.
  • Label: Initially mirroring the Name field but can be changed by the user on the topology map and represented in this field.
  • Name: Device host name as defined in a configuration file.
  • OS: Host operating system derived from third party data files,
  • Services: Host services derived from third party data files,
  • Type: Device type; firewall, router, switch, gateway, host, unmapped host.
  • Updated At: Time and date when the device was last updated (configuration change).
  • Updated By: Type of file used to update the device.
  • + Comment: Drop down for user entered comments (or justification) and criticality levels (low, medium, high).
  • Comment Count: Label less column that indicates the number of comments available for each asset.

Object Groups

  • This report provides a summary of network ACL object groups including:  Host IP addresses, network address of group members, and nested object groups.
  • Object Groups classify users, devices, or protocols into “groups” and apply those groups to Access Control Lists (ACLs) to create access control policies for those groups.
  • When data is loaded from a firewall vs Network Management system, the listing of object groups for addresses may vary.
    • When viewing data from a network management system, globally defined groups may be available.
    • When the data is loaded from the firewall, the global addresses may be presented as local addresses.

  • Name: (OBJECT_NAME) Name of the object group which may include:
    • Any IP address--includes a range from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255
    • Host IP addresses
    • Hostnames
    • Other network object groups
    • Ranges of IP addresses
    • Subnets
  • Origin: (OBJECT_ORIGIN) Name of the device containing the object definition
  • Type: (OBJECT_TYPE) Address, Service, Zone or Protocol
  • Value: (OBJECT_VALUE) Content of the object group
  • Unused Status: (OBJECT_STATUS) Cisco status column for if the rule is unused.  true = unused.
  • + Comment: (OBJECT_COMMENT, OBJECT_CRITICALITY, OBJECT_DESCRIPTION) Drop down for user entered comments (or justification) and criticality levels (low, medium, high).
  • Comment Count: Label less column that indicates the number of comments available for each ass

Object group tagging
Object groups are uniquely tagged (Object ID) within NP-View for linkage to comments.  The tag is created using a hash of the below data fields.  If any of the data in these fields changes, the tag will change and previously linked comments and metadata will no longer be associated with this object.

The hash is calculated based on a combination of the following data fields.  Available data varies based on manufacturer so, some fields may not apply to specific manufacturers.  Most of the below fields are defined above. For the fields unique to the hash, they are documented below.

  • OBJECT_NAME
  • OBJECT_TYPE
  • OBJECT_ORIGIN
  • OBJECT_VALUE
  • OBJECT_STATUS
  • OBJECT_TAG -

Object group metadata synchronization (Enterprise only)
In the Enterprise edition, additional metadata fields can be added for the Object group report.  The metadata will automatically synchronize across devices and workspaces based on the Object group name.

Risks & Warnings

  • When a potential risk or warning is identified, it is logged in the “Risks and Warnings” table with a time and date stamp.
  • Each potential risk is assigned a “type” (Risk or Warning) and a Criticality (High, Medium, Low) based on the active policies in the Policy manager.
  • Additionally, the device name and a description of the infraction is listed with the status (New, Confirmed, Resolved, False Positive, Will Not Fix or Fixed).

Risk & Warning Status and Life Cycle

For new risks or warnings, the expectation is that the user will review each item, determine if the issue needs to be addressed and they can manually change the action status accordingly.

  • new
  • confirmed: new risks or warnings that are acknowledged by the user as a valid problem to address
  • resolved: risks or warnings that are closed because the problem has been addressed
  • false positive: risks or warnings that are closed because they are not a valid problem to address
  • will not fix: risks or warnings that are closed because it was decided to not address them

Upon subsequent network updates, the system will adjust the status if required. For example:

  • If the user marks a risk as Resolved and upon the next network update the risk is still identified, the status will automatically be changed to Confirmed.
  • If upon the next network update the risk is no longer identified, the status will be changed to Fixed. Fixed items are removed from the list after a period of 7 days.

  • Time: (RISKWARNING_TIMESTAMP) Date and Time the potential risk was identified:
  • Type: (RISKWARNING_TYPE) Risk or Warning.
  • Criticality: (RISKWARNING_CRITICALITY) High, Medium or low as defined by the identifying policy and requirements.
  • Workspace: (RISKWARNING_WORKSPACE) Name of the workspace containing the potential risk or warning.
  • Device: (RISKWARNING_DEVICE) Name of the device containing the potential risk or warning.
  • Description: (RISKWARNING_DESCRIPTION) Description of the potential risk or warning.
  • Status: (RISKWARNING_STATUA) Current status as defined above.
  • Action: Action options as defined above.
  • + Comment: Drop down for user entered comments (or justification) and criticality levels (low, medium, high).
  • Comment Count: Label less column that indicates the number of comments available for each asset

Comparison Report – Show History

Access Rules and Object Groups have a Compare function to show historical differences in data that has been added or removed. The function can be engaged by clicking the “Compare” button located at the top of the page. This function is used to display changes over a period of days.

The user can select a time frame (7, 30, 90 or 356 days or a custom date range). The user can select one or more devices to include in the report and then show the history over the range. Once the parameters are selected, the “Show Comparison” button should be selected.

The comparison function will display all changes (Rule Adds, Rule Removal and Unchanged Rules) for the selected days. The data will be displayed using the column format of the selected table. The user can filter on added, removed or unchanged rules by clicking the jelly bean. Added rules will be highlighted in green, removed rules will be highlighted in red and unchanged rules will be highlighted in light blue.

Clicking the “Compare” button will revert to the normal table but will not clear the selections.

Clicking the “Reset” button will clear the selections and reset the table.

Conditional Formatting – Table Highlighting

NP-View reports use highlighting to help the user quickly identify important information.  The highlighting is controlled by the Table Highlight tab under the Policy manager function.

To learn more about Table Highlighting and the Policy Manager refer to the Policy Manager article.

Report Personalization

The table reports can be personalized by each user.  Individual columns can be sorted ascending or descending as well as pinned to the left or right which will fix the column during scrolling.

The report can also be personalized by adding or removing columns. By clicking the hamburger menu in the upper right, a list of columns will be displayed. The user can enable and disable specific columns for viewing.  After selection is final, click the save button to retain the settings.

Displayed columns can also be personalized.  The user can change the column size (drag between columns) and order of the columns (drag from header).

The updated configuration will apply to all reports of the same type across workspaces by user when the save button in the upper right is selected.

Note:  Select reports have data export and import capabilities.  Details on these features can be found here.

System Logs

The system logs features shows a detailed sequence of tasks attempted and completed.  This log is primarily used for system debugging and contains information, errors and warnings derived during system operation.  The system log feature has three views, Workspace, User, and System.  The System view is accessible only by the Administrator and shows the overall operation of system across users and workspaces.  The workspace and user views are available to the Administrator and Workspace Admin.  The user view shows the actions taken by the current user on the open workspace.   The Workspace view shows system actions for the open workspace.  The views can be filtered to show only information, errors, warnings or all.  Errors are generated when a system operation fails to complete.  Warnings are generated during data parsing and when policy / requirement infractions are identified.

Background Tasks

The background task functions shows the status of each task spawned by a data import, merge, analysis or running policy. A parsing task indicates the imported file is being normalized and hosts inferred.  Merge tasks combine the blueprints into the topology map. Analysis defines all of the paths and open ports.  Policies review the active requirements to identify potential risks for review or to provide cell / text highlighting for reports.

The report displays the task name, its progress, the workspace the task is running, the user who owns the task and the time it started or ended.  The check box allows the user to filter on the tasks pertinent to the current workspace.  The X allows the user to cancel a task that may be running too long or be stuck for some reason.

The user can also cancel all tasks within a workspace using the “Cancel All for this Workspace” button.

Tip: Click on the active spinner on the topology map to invoke the Background Task report.

Change Tracking

As modifications are made to the network and the updated configuration files are imported, the NP-View automatically detects the changes and logs them in the Change Tracking table. For each change, the timestamp, action, device, and description are recorded.

The actions recorded are as follows:

File import – for each file uploaded, of the following statuses will be displayed

  • successful import” – file imported successfully
  • ignored file: <filename> – unknown file type, ignored
  • failed import” – file failed to import, review help center for reason

Topology map – for each file uploaded, of the following statuses will be displayed for the topology map

  • device path information” – triggered if the connectivity matrix changes
    • Path can be added or removed
    • Assets refers to destination IP addresses
    • Services refers to the unique ports (or any) associated with the imported device
    • Details on the above can be viewed in the Connectivity paths
  • topology updated” – indicates the topology map has been successfully updated
  • topology failure” – indicates the topology map has failed, review help center for reason

Connectivity Paths – for each file uploaded, of the following statuses will be displayed for the workspace

  • workspace analysis updated” – all other tables have been successfully updated

Changes are displayed by calendar day. At the top of the table is a drop down that allows the user to select which day to review. The default is the current day.

The change tracking table can be searched, sorted by any column, switched to a list view, exported, and configured with alternate columns if required. These functions are available in the upper right corner of the table.

Connectivity Paths

This report provides a summary of network paths and their analysis results:

  • Destination: (PATH_DST_IP_BEGIN : PATH_DST_IP_END) address of the destination
  • Device Sequence: (PATH_DEV_SEQUENCE) Name of device which contains the rule sequence
  • Ports: (SRC_PORT_BEGIN : SRC_PORT_END) The ports that are open along the path
  • Protocol: (PATH_PROTOCOL) The protocol enabled on the path
  • Rule Sequence: (PATH_RULE_SEQUENCE) Access list sequence of rules and reference line number within the configuration file
  • Source: (PATH_SRC_IP_BEGIN : PATH_SRC_IP_END) IP address of the source
  • + Comment: Drop down for user entered comments (or justification) and criticality levels (low, medium, high).
  • Comment Count: Label less column that indicates the number of comments available for each asset.

The IP groups are highlighted with light colors to allow for quick scanning of the table.

Compare path history

This interactive report provides a network path comparison between two points in time. When a configuration file is added to the system and is different from the previously imported file, a new “Version” is created.  The user can select two versions to compare.  The resulting table will display the changes between the two files. Removals in the left column and adds in the right column.

 

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Custom Metadata Fields

In addition to the standard columns that track data from your configuration files such as device, source, and destination, NP-View includes custom metadata columns that allow users to input their own data directly into the table

The Access Rules and Object Groups tables include these additional metadata fields to support NERC-CIP reporting, they are indicated as such by a light blue header.

*Custom Metadata being edited

*Custom Metadata being edited – closeup

  • Custom metadata fields can be populated by a user directly in the UI,  through in-line editing (double click on a cell to activate editing of the row).
  • Additionally, custom metadata fields can be populated by exporting the table using the export function.
    • This exported file can then be enriched with metadata and imported using the standard import function.

Currently, the provided custom metadata fields are fixed, cannot be moved, renamed, or reordered (but can be hidden) and contain the following fields:

  1. Justification – text
  2. Rule Technical Owner – text
  3. Rule Business owner – text
  4. Rule Point of Contact – text
  5. Related Systems – text
  6. IRA? – True/False/ Unknown
  7. IRA Comments – text
  8. Vendor Access – text
  9. Vendor Comments – True/False/ Unknown
  10. Latest Rule Verification Date – date
  11. Date for Follow-Up – date
  12. Compliance Review Notes – text
  13. Miscellaneous Notes – text

Custom metadata fields come in three types:

  • Text fields
    •  Free form text with no character type limits.  The field has been tested to 65,635 characters. Note that a high number of characters will require scrolling in the UI to display the information.
  • Binary fields
    • accept either True /False/ unknown via the UI
    • accepts true / false /unknown using the export file (case matters).  This field can be cleared by using the export / import function and leaving the field blank in the export file and then importing the file. Wrongly formatted data in this field will be ignored.
  • Date fields
    • use a calendar widget in the UI to fill in the field or can be entered using mm/dd/yyyy format using the export / import function.  Wrongly formatted data in this field will be ignored.

*The import system has been designed to treat all fields as text and not attempt to execute any fields that resemble text.

Synchronization

  • Data in these fields will be synchronized across workspaces and views where the same access rule or object group is used.
  • This is done automatically when data is imported or input into a specific cell.
  • Data synchronization can take several minutes and will not appear within the report until after closing and reopening the report.

Conditional Formatting

Custom metadata fields can be used in conjunction with conditional formatting in the policy manager to highlight the text or cells based on text match.  See Policy Manager

Expanded Object Groups

In the Access Rules table, Source, Destination and Service groups can be expanded to see the group details.  By clicking on the + icon within a cell, the expanded group information can be made visible.

 

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