Revealing the Most Violated Standards in NERC CIP Compliance

July 17, 2023


In the modern digital landscape, ensuring the security and reliability of critical infrastructure is of paramount importance. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) standards serve as a comprehensive set of guidelines to safeguard the bulk power system in North America. Compliance with these standards is essential to mitigate cyber threats and protect against potential disruptions. However, despite the stringent measures put in place, certain standards within the NERC CIP framework tend to be more frequently violated than others. In this blog post, we will delve into some of the most commonly violated standards and explore their significance.


CIP-004: Personnel and Training:

CIP-004 addresses the importance of ensuring that personnel with authorized cyber or unescorted physical access to critical assets are identified, trained, and supervised. Violations of this standard often occur due to insufficient background checks, improper training, or a lack of oversight. Neglecting these requirements can leave critical infrastructure vulnerable to internal threats and unauthorized access, which can have severe consequences.


CIP-005: Electronic Security Perimeters:

CIP-005 focuses on establishing security perimeters around critical cyber assets to protect against unauthorized access. Violations of this standard commonly arise from weak network segmentation, inadequate firewall configurations, or failure to monitor traffic between zones. Without proper security perimeters, hackers can gain unauthorized access to critical systems, compromising their integrity and potentially causing disruptions.


CIP-006: Physical Security of Critical Cyber Assets:

CIP-006 emphasizes the need for physical security measures to protect critical cyber assets. Violations of this standard often occur due to weak access controls, inadequate surveillance systems, or failure to perform regular security assessments. Physical security breaches can lead to unauthorized access, equipment tampering, or theft of sensitive information, thereby posing significant risks to the reliability of the power grid.


CIP-007: Systems Security Management:

CIP-007 outlines the requirements for managing system security by establishing processes for identifying, categorizing, and mitigating cybersecurity risks. Violations of this standard typically stem from inadequate vulnerability management practices, insufficient patch management, or a lack of incident response plans. Neglecting to address system vulnerabilities and respond effectively to incidents can expose critical infrastructure to cyber threats, resulting in service disruptions and potential cascading effects.


CIP-010: Change Management and Vulnerability Assessments:

CIP-010 focuses on managing configuration changes and conducting regular vulnerability assessments to ensure the integrity of critical cyber assets. Violations of this standard commonly arise from inadequate change management procedures, incomplete documentation, or failure to perform vulnerability assessments regularly. Without proper change control and vulnerability management, unauthorized changes or unpatched vulnerabilities can introduce weaknesses into the system, making it susceptible to exploitation.


Compliance with the NERC CIP standards is crucial for safeguarding critical infrastructure against cyber threats and ensuring the reliability of the power grid. However, certain standards within the framework tend to be more frequently violated than others, leaving organizations susceptible to potential disruptions. By recognizing these commonly violated standards, organizations can prioritize their efforts to improve their cybersecurity posture, enhance training programs, strengthen physical and logical access controls, and implement robust change management procedures. Proactive measures and a comprehensive approach to NERC CIP compliance are vital in fortifying the resilience of the bulk power system and ensuring the smooth functioning of the electricity supply chain.